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Tuesday, November 9, 2010


General 2G Network GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
3G Network HSDPA 900 / 1900 / 2100
Announced 2010, September
Status Available. Released 2010, October
Size Dimensions 190.1 x 120.5 x 12 mm
Weight 380 g
Display Type TFT capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors
Size 600 x 1024 pixels, 7.0 inches
- TouchWiz UI
- Multi-touch input method
- Accelerometer sensor for UI auto-rotate
- Three-axis gyro sensor
- Touch-sensitive controls
- Proximity sensor for auto turn-off
- Swype text input
Sound Alert types Vibration; MP3, WAV ringtones
Speakerphone Yes, with stereo speakers
- 3.5 mm audio jack
Memory Phonebook Practically unlimited entries and fields, Photocall
Call records Practically unlimited
Internal 16/32 GB storage, 512 MB RAM
Card slot microSD, up to 32GB, buy memory
Data GPRS Yes
3G HSDPA, 7.2 Mbps; HSUPA, 5.76 Mbps
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n
Bluetooth Yes, v3.0 with A2DP
Infrared port No
USB Yes, v2.0 (proprietary)
Camera Primary 3.15 MP, 2048x1536 pixels, autofocus, LED flash
Features Geo-tagging
Video Yes, 720x480@30fps
Secondary Yes, 1.3 MP
Features OS Android OS, v2.2 (Froyo)
CPU ARM Cortex A8 processor, 1 GHz processor; PowerVR SGX540 graphics
Messaging SMS(threaded view), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM, RSS
Browser HTML
Radio No
Games Yes
Colors Black and Grey
GPS Yes, with A-GPS support
Java Yes, MIDP 2.1
- Social networking integration
- Digital compass
- Full HD video playback
- Up to 7h movie playback
- TV-out
- MP4/DivX/WMV/H.264/H.263 player
- MP3/WAV/eAAC+/AC3/FLAC player
- Organizer
- Image/video editor
- Thinkfree Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, PDF)
- Google Search, Maps, Gmail,
YouTube, Calendar, Google Talk, Picasa integration
- Readers/Media/Music Hub
- Adobe Flash 10.1 support
- Voice memo/dial/commands
- T9
Battery Standard battery, Li-Po 4000 mAh
Talk time
Misc Price group


An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label that is assigned to any device participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes.[1] An IP address serves two principal functions; host or network interface identification and location addressing. Its role has been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there."[2]
The designers of TCP/IP defined an IP address as a 32-bit number[1] and this system, known as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is still in use today. However, due to the enormous growth of the Internet and the predicted depletion of available addresses, a new addressing system (IPv6), using 128 bits for the address, was developed in 1995,[3] standardized by RFC 2460 in 1998,[4] and is in world-wide production deployment.
Although IP addresses are stored as binary numbers, they are usually displayed in human-readable notations, such as (for IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:1:1 (for IPv6).
The Internet Protocol is used to route data packets between networks; IP addresses specify the locations of the source and destination nodes in the topology of the routing system. For this purpose, some of the bits in an IP address are used to designate a subnetwork. The number of these bits is indicated in CIDR notation, appended to the IP address; e.g.,
As the development of private networks raised the threat of IPv4 address exhaustion, RFC 1918 set aside a group of private address spaces that may be used by anyone on private networks. Such networks require network address translator gateways to connect to the global Internet.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the IP address space allocations globally and cooperates with five regional Internet registries (RIRs) to allocate IP address blocks to local Internet registries (Internet service providers) and other entities.

IP versions

Two versions of the Internet Protocol (IP) are in use: IP Version 4 and IP Version 6. (See IP version history for details.) Each version defines an IP address differently. Because of its prevalence, the generic term IP address typically still refers to the addresses defined by IPv4.

Decomposition of an IPv4 address from dot-decimal notation to its binary value.

IP version 4 addresses

In IPv4 an address consists of 32 bits which limits the address space to 4294967296 (232) possible unique addresses. IPv4 reserves some addresses for special purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) or multicast addresses (~270 million addresses).
IPv4 addresses are usually represented in dot-decimal notation (four numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, separated by dots, e.g. Each part represents 8 bits of the address, and is therefore called an octet. In less common cases of technical writing, IPv4 addresses may be presented in hexadecimal, octal, or binary representations. In most representations each octet is converted individually.

 IPv4 subnetting

In the early stages of development of the Internet Protocol,[1] network administrators interpreted an IP address in two parts, network number portion and host number portion. The highest order octet (most significant eight bits) in an address was designated as the network number and the rest of the bits were called the rest field or host identifier and were used for host numbering within a network.
The early method soon proved inadequate as additional networks developed that were independent from the existing networks already designated by a network number. In 1981, the Internet addressing specification was revised with the introduction of classful network architecture.[2]
Classful network design allowed for a larger number of individual network assignments and fine-grained subnetwork design. The first three bits of the most significant octet of an IP address was defined as the class of the address. Three classes (A, B, and C) were defined for universal unicast addressing. Depending on the class derived, the network identification was based on octet boundary segments of the entire address. Each class used successively additional octets in the network identifier, thus reducing the possible number of hosts in the higher order classes (B and C). The following table gives an overview of this now obsolete system.
Historical classful network architecture
Class First octet in binary Range of first octet Network ID Host ID Number of networks Number of addresses
A 0XXXXXXX 0 - 127 a b.c.d 27 = 128 224 = 16777216
B 10XXXXXX 128 - 191 a.b c.d 214 = 16384 216 = 65536
C 110XXXXX 192 - 223 a.b.c d 221 = 2097152 28 = 256
Classful network design served its purpose in the startup stage of the Internet, however, it lacked scalability in the face of the rapid expansion of the network in the 1990s. The class system of the address space was replaced with Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) in 1993. CIDR is based on variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) to allow allocation and routing based on arbitrary-length prefixes.
Today, remnants of classful network concepts function only in a limited scope as the default configuration parameters of some network software and hardware components (e.g., netmask), and in the technical jargon used in network administrators' discussions.

IPv4 private addresses

Early network design, when global end-to-end connectivity was envisioned for communications with all Internet hosts, intended that IP addresses be uniquely assigned to a particular computer or device. However, it was found that this was not always necessary as private networks developed and public address space needed to be conserved.
Computers not connected to the Internet, such as factory machines that communicate only with each other via TCP/IP, need not have globally-unique IP addresses. Three ranges of IPv4 addresses for private networks were reserved in RFC 1918. These addresses are not routed on the Internet and thus their use need not be coordinated with an IP address registry.
Today, when needed, such private networks typically connect to the Internet through network address translation (NAT).
IANA-reserved private IPv4 network ranges

Start End No. of addresses
24-bit Block (/8 prefix, 1 × A) 16777216
20-bit Block (/12 prefix, 16 × B) 1048576
16-bit Block (/16 prefix, 256 × C) 65536
Any user may use any of the reserved blocks. Typically, a network administrator will divide a block into subnets; for example, many home routers automatically use a default address range of - (

IPv4 address exhaustion

The IP version 4 address space is rapidly nearing exhaustion of available and assignable address blocks. As of October 2010 predictions of an exhaustion date for the unallocated IANA pool converge to the middle of 2011[5]

IP version 6 addresses

Decomposition of an IPv6 address from hexadecimal representation to its binary value.
The rapid exhaustion of IPv4 address space, despite conservation techniques, prompted the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to explore new technologies to expand the Internet's addressing capability. The permanent solution was deemed to be a redesign of the Internet Protocol itself. This next generation of the Internet Protocol, aimed to replace IPv4 on the Internet, was eventually named Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) in 1995[3][4] The address size was increased from 32 to 128 bits or 16 octets, which, even with a generous assignment of network blocks, is deemed sufficient for the foreseeable future. Mathematically, the new address space provides the potential for a maximum of 2128, or about 3.403×1038 unique addresses.
The new design is not based on the goal to provide a sufficient quantity of addresses alone, but rather to allow efficient aggregation of subnet routing prefixes to occur at routing nodes. As a result, routing table sizes are smaller, and the smallest possible individual allocation is a subnet for 264 hosts, which is the square of the size of the entire IPv4 Internet. At these levels, actual address utilization rates will be small on any IPv6 network segment. The new design also provides the opportunity to separate the addressing infrastructure of a network segment—that is the local administration of the segment's available space—from the addressing prefix used to route external traffic for a network. IPv6 has facilities that automatically change the routing prefix of entire networks should the global connectivity or the routing policy change without requiring internal redesign or renumbering.
The large number of IPv6 addresses allows large blocks to be assigned for specific purposes and, where appropriate, to be aggregated for efficient routing. With a large address space, there is not the need to have complex address conservation methods as used in Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR).
All modern desktop and enterprise server operating systems include native support for the IPv6 protocol, but it is not yet widely deployed in other devices, such as home networking routers, voice over IP (VoIP) and multimedia equipment, and network peripherals.

[edit] IPv6 private addresses

Just as IPv4 reserves addresses for private or internal networks, there are blocks of addresses set aside in IPv6 for private addresses. In IPv6, these are referred to as unique local addresses (ULA). RFC 4193 sets aside the routing prefix fc00::/7 for this block which is divided into two /8 blocks with different implied policies (cf. IPv6) The addresses include a 40-bit pseudorandom number that minimizes the risk of address collisions if sites merge or packets are misrouted.
Early designs (RFC 3513) used a different block for this purpose (fec0::), dubbed site-local addresses. However, the definition of what constituted sites remained unclear and the poorly defined addressing policy created ambiguities for routing. The address range specification was abandoned and must no longer be used in new systems.
Addresses starting with fe80:, called link-local addresses, are assigned to interfaces for communication on the link only. The addresses are usually automatically generated by the operating system for each network interface. This provides instant automatic network connectivity for any IPv6 host and means that if several hosts connect to a common hub or switch, they have an instant communication path via their link-local IPv6 address. This feature is used extensively, and invisibly to most users, in the lower layers of IPv6 network administration (cf. Neighbor Discovery Protocol).
None of the private address prefixes may be routed in the public Internet.

IP subnetworks

IP networks may be divided into subnetworks in both IPv4 and IPv6. For this purpose, an IP address is logically recognized as consisting of two parts: the network prefix and the host identifier, or interface identifier (IPv6). The subnet mask or the CIDR prefix determines how the IP address is divided into network and host parts.
The term subnet mask is only used within IPv4. Both IP versions however use the Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) concept and notation. In this, the IP address is followed by a slash and the number (in decimal) of bits used for the network part, also called the routing prefix. For example, an IPv4 address and its subnet mask may be and, respectively. The CIDR notation for the same IP address and subnet is, because the first 24 bits of the IP address indicate the network and subnet.

IP address assignment

Internet Protocol addresses are assigned to a host either anew at the time of booting, or permanently by fixed configuration of its hardware or software. Persistent configuration is also known as using a static IP address. In contrast, in situations when the computer's IP address is assigned newly each time, this is known as using a dynamic IP address.


Static IP addresses are manually assigned to a computer by an administrator. The exact procedure varies according to platform. This contrasts with dynamic IP addresses, which are assigned either by the computer interface or host software itself, as in Zeroconf, or assigned by a server using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). Even though IP addresses assigned using DHCP may stay the same for long periods of time, they can generally change. In some cases, a network administrator may implement dynamically assigned static IP addresses. In this case, a DHCP server is used, but it is specifically configured to always assign the same IP address to a particular computer. This allows static IP addresses to be configured centrally, without having to specifically configure each computer on the network in a manual procedure.
In the absence or failure of static or stateful (DHCP) address configurations, an operating system may assign an IP address to a network interface using state-less auto-configuration methods, such as Zeroconf.

 Uses of dynamic addressing

Dynamic IP addresses are most frequently assigned on LANs and broadband networks by Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers. They are used because it avoids the administrative burden of assigning specific static addresses to each device on a network. It also allows many devices to share limited address space on a network if only some of them will be online at a particular time. In most current desktop operating systems, dynamic IP configuration is enabled by default so that a user does not need to manually enter any settings to connect to a network with a DHCP server. DHCP is not the only technology used to assign dynamic IP addresses. Dialup and some broadband networks use dynamic address features of the Point-to-Point Protocol.

 Sticky dynamic IP address

A sticky dynamic IP address or sticky IP is an informal term used by cable and DSL Internet access subscribers to describe a dynamically assigned IP address that seldom changes . The addresses are usually assigned with the DHCP protocol. Since the modems are usually powered-on for extended periods of time, the address leases are usually set to long periods and simply renewed upon expiration. If a modem is turned off and powered up again before the next expiration of the address lease, it will most likely receive the same IP address.

 Address autoconfiguration

RFC 3330 defines an address block,, for the special use in link-local addressing for IPv4 networks. In IPv6, every interface, whether using static or dynamic address assignments, also receives a local-link address automatically in the fe80::/10 subnet.
These addresses are only valid on the link, such as a local network segment or point-to-point connection, that a host is connected to. These addresses are not routable and like private addresses cannot be the source or destination of packets traversing the Internet.
When the link-local IPv4 address block was reserved, no standards existed for mechanisms of address autoconfiguration. Filling the void, Microsoft created an implementation that is called Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA). Due to Microsoft's market power, APIPA has been deployed on millions of machines and has, thus, become a de facto standard in the industry. Many years later, the IETF defined a formal standard for this functionality, RFC 3927, entitled Dynamic Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses.

Uses of static addressing

Some infrastructure situations have to use static addressing, such as when finding the Domain Name System(DNS) host that will translate domain names to IP addresses. Static addresses are also convenient, but not absolutely necessary, to locate servers inside an enterprise. An address obtained from a DNS server comes with a time to live, or caching time, after which it should be looked up to confirm that it has not changed. Even static IP addresses do change as a result of network administration (RFC 2072)

Public addresses

A public IP address is an address that is reachable on the global Internet.
In contrast, both IPv4 and IPv6 define address ranges that are reserved for private networks (see above), for link-local addressing, and for other purposes.

 Modifications to IP addressing

 IP blocking and firewalls

Firewalls are common on today's Internet. For increased network security, they control access to private networks based on the public IP of the client. Whether using a blacklist or a whitelist, the IP address that is blocked is the perceived public IP address of the client, meaning that if the client is using a proxy server or NAT, blocking one IP address might block many individual people.

 IP address translation

Multiple client devices can appear to share IP addresses: either because they are part of a shared hosting web server environment or because an IPv4 network address translator (NAT) or proxy server acts as an intermediary agent on behalf of its customers, in which case the real originating IP addresses might be hidden from the server receiving a request. A common practice is to have a NAT hide a large number of IP addresses in a private network. Only the "outside" interface(s) of the NAT need to have Internet-routable addresses[6].
Most commonly, the NAT device maps TCP or UDP port numbers on the outside to individual private addresses on the inside. Just as a telephone number may have site-specific extensions, the port numbers are site-specific extensions to an IP address.
In small home networks, NAT functions usually take place in a residential gateway device, typically one marketed as a "router". In this scenario, the computers connected to the router would have 'private' IP addresses and the router would have a 'public' address to communicate with the Internet. This type of router allows several computers to share one public IP address.

Diagnostic tools

Computer operating systems provide various diagnostic tools to examine their network interface and address configuration. Windows provides the command-line interface tool ipconfig and users of Unix-like systems can use ifconfig, netstat, route, lanstat, ifstat, or iproute2 utilities to accomplish the task.


The TCP/IP model is a description framework for computer network protocols created in the 1970s by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense. It evolved from ARPANET, which was the world's first wide area network and a predecessor of the Internet. The TCP/IP Model is sometimes called the Internet Model or the DoD Model.
The TCP/IP model, or Internet Protocol Suite, describes a set of general design guidelines and implementations of specific networking protocols to enable computers to communicate over a network. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. Protocols exist for a variety of different types of communication services between computers.
TCP/IP, sometimes referred to as the Internet model, has four abstraction layers as defined in RFC 1122. This layer architecture is often compared with the seven-layer OSI Reference Model; using terms such as Internet reference model, incorrectly, however, because it is descriptive while the OSI Reference Model was intended to be prescriptive, hence being a reference model.
The TCP/IP model and related protocols are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

Key architectural principles

An early architectural document, RFC 1122, emphasizes architectural principles over layering.[1]
  • End-to-End Principle: This principle has evolved over time. Its original expression put the maintenance of state and overall intelligence at the edges, and assumed the Internet that connected the edges retained no state and concentrated on speed and simplicity. Real-world needs for firewalls, network address translators, web content caches and the like have forced changes in this principle.[2]
  • Robustness Principle: "In general, an implementation must be conservative in its sending behavior, and liberal in its receiving behavior. That is, it must be careful to send well-formed datagrams, but must accept any datagram that it can interpret (e.g., not object to technical errors where the meaning is still clear)." [3] "The second part of the principle is almost as important: software on other hosts may contain deficiencies that make it unwise to exploit legal but obscure protocol features." [4]
Even when the layers are examined, the assorted architectural documents—there is no single architectural model such as ISO 7498, the OSI reference model—have fewer and less rigidly-defined layers than the OSI model, and thus provide an easier fit for real-world protocols. In point of fact, one frequently referenced document, RFC 1958, does not contain a stack of layers. The lack of emphasis on layering is a strong difference between the IETF and OSI approaches. It only refers to the existence of the "internetworking layer" and generally to "upper layers"; this document was intended as a 1996 "snapshot" of the architecture: "The Internet and its architecture have grown in evolutionary fashion from modest beginnings, rather than from a Grand Plan. While this process of evolution is one of the main reasons for the technology's success, it nevertheless seems useful to record a snapshot of the current principles of the Internet architecture."
RFC 1122, entitled Host Requirements, is structured in paragraphs referring to layers, but the document refers to many other architectural principles not emphasizing layering. It loosely defines a four-layer model, with the layers having names, not numbers, as follows:
  • Application Layer (process-to-process): This is the scope within which applications create user data and communicate this data to other processes or applications on another or the same host. The communications partners are often called peers. This is where the "higher level" protocols such as SMTP, FTP, SSH, HTTP, etc. operate.
  • Transport Layer (host-to-host): The Transport Layer constitutes the networking regime between two network hosts, either on the local network or on remote networks separated by routers. The Transport Layer provides a uniform networking interface that hides the actual topology (layout) of the underlying network connections. This is where flow-control, error-correction, and connection protocols exist, such as TCP. This layer deals with opening and maintaining connections between Internet hosts.
  • Internet Layer (internetworking): The Internet Layer has the task of exchanging datagrams across network boundaries. It is therefore also referred to as the layer that establishes internetworking, indeed, it defines and establishes the Internet. This layer defines the addressing and routing structures used for the TCP/IP protocol suite. The primary protocol in this scope is the Internet Protocol, which defines IP addresses. Its function in routing is to transport datagrams to the next IP router that has the connectivity to a network closer to the final data destination.
  • Link Layer: This layer defines the networking methods with the scope of the local network link on which hosts communicate without intervening routers. This layer describes the protocols used to describe the local network topology and the interfaces needed to affect transmission of Internet Layer datagrams to next-neighbor hosts. (cf. the OSI Data Link Layer).
The Internet Protocol Suite and the layered protocol stack design were in use before the OSI model was established. Since then, the TCP/IP model has been compared with the OSI model in books and classrooms, which often results in confusion because the two models use different assumptions, including about the relative importance of strict layering.Layers in the TCP/IP model

Two Internet hosts connected via two routers and the corresponding layers used at each hop.

Encapsulation of application data descending through the TCP/IP layers
The layers near the top are logically closer to the user application, while those near the bottom are logically closer to the physical transmission of the data. Viewing layers as providing or consuming a service is a method of abstraction to isolate upper layer protocols from the nitty-gritty detail of transmitting bits over, for example, Ethernet and collision detection, while the lower layers avoid having to know the details of each and every application and its protocol.
This abstraction also allows upper layers to provide services that the lower layers cannot, or choose not to, provide. Again, the original OSI Reference Model was extended to include connectionless services (OSIRM CL).[5] For example, IP is not designed to be reliable and is a best effort delivery protocol. This means that all transport layer implementations must choose whether or not to provide reliability and to what degree. UDP provides data integrity (via a checksum) but does not guarantee delivery; TCP provides both data integrity and delivery guarantee (by retransmitting until the receiver acknowledges the reception of the packet).
This model lacks the formalism of the OSI reference model and associated documents, but the IETF does not use a formal model and does not consider this a limitation, as in the comment by David D. Clark, "We reject: kings, presidents and voting. We believe in: rough consensus and running code." Criticisms of this model, which have been made with respect to the OSI Reference Model, often do not consider ISO's later extensions to that model.
  1. For multiaccess links with their own addressing systems (e.g. Ethernet) an address mapping protocol is needed. Such protocols can be considered to be below IP but above the existing link system. While the IETF does not use the terminology, this is a subnetwork dependent convergence facility according to an extension to the OSI model, the Internal Organization of the Network Layer (IONL) [6].
  2. ICMP & IGMP operate on top of IP but do not transport data like UDP or TCP. Again, this functionality exists as layer management extensions to the OSI model, in its Management Framework (OSIRM MF) [7]
  3. The SSL/TLS library operates above the transport layer (uses TCP) but below application protocols. Again, there was no intention, on the part of the designers of these protocols, to comply with OSI architecture.
  4. The link is treated like a black box here. This is fine for discussing IP (since the whole point of IP is it will run over virtually anything). The IETF explicitly does not intend to discuss transmission systems, which is a less academic but practical alternative to the OSI Reference Model.
The following is a description of each layer in the TCP/IP networking model starting from the lowest level.

Link Layer

The Link Layer is the networking scope of the local network connection to which a host is attached. This regime is called the link in Internet literature. This is the lowest component layer of the Internet protocols, as TCP/IP is designed to be hardware independent. As a result TCP/IP has been implemented on top of virtually any hardware networking technology in existence.
The Link Layer is used to move packets between the Internet Layer interfaces of two different hosts on the same link. The processes of transmitting and receiving packets on a given link can be controlled both in the software device driver for the network card, as well as on firmware or specialized chipsets. These will perform data link functions such as adding a packet header to prepare it for transmission, then actually transmit the frame over a physical medium. The TCP/IP model includes specifications of translating the network addressing methods used in the Internet Protocol to data link addressing, such as Media Access Control (MAC), however all other aspects below that level are implicitly assumed to exist in the Link Layer, but are not explicitly defined.
The Link Layer is also the layer where packets may be selected to be sent over a virtual private network or other networking tunnel. In this scenario, the Link Layer data may be considered application data which traverses another instantiation of the IP stack for transmission or reception over another IP connection. Such a connection, or virtual link, may be established with a transport protocol or even an application scope protocol that serves as a tunnel in the Link Layer of the protocol stack. Thus, the TCP/IP model does not dictate a strict hierarchical encapsulation sequence.

 Internet Layer

The Internet Layer solves the problem of sending packets across one or more networks. Internetworking requires sending data from the source network to the destination network. This process is called routing.[8]
In the Internet Protocol Suite, the Internet Protocol performs two basic functions:
  • Host addressing and identification: This is accomplished with a hierarchical addressing system (see IP address).
  • Packet routing: This is the basic task of getting packets of data (datagrams) from source to destination by sending them to the next network node (router) closer to the final destination.
IP can carry data for a number of different upper layer protocols. These protocols are each identified by a unique protocol number: for example, Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) are protocols 1 and 2, respectively.
Some of the protocols carried by IP, such as ICMP (used to transmit diagnostic information about IP transmission) and IGMP (used to manage IP Multicast data) are layered on top of IP but perform internetworking functions. This illustrates the differences in the architecture of the TCP/IP stack of the Internet and the OSI model.

[edit] Transport Layer

The Transport Layer's responsibilities include end-to-end message transfer capabilities independent of the underlying network, along with error control, segmentation, flow control, congestion control, and application addressing (port numbers). End to end message transmission or connecting applications at the transport layer can be categorized as either connection-oriented, implemented in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), or connectionless, implemented in User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
The Transport Layer can be thought of as a transport mechanism, e.g., a vehicle with the responsibility to make sure that its contents (passengers/goods) reach their destination safely and soundly, unless another protocol layer is responsible for safe delivery.
The Transport Layer provides this service of connecting applications through the use of service ports. Since IP provides only a best effort delivery, the Transport Layer is the first layer of the TCP/IP stack to offer reliability. IP can run over a reliable data link protocol such as the High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC). Protocols above transport, such as RPC, also can provide reliability.
For example, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented protocol that addresses numerous reliability issues to provide a reliable byte stream:
  • data arrives in-order
  • data has minimal error (i.e. correctness)
  • duplicate data is discarded
  • lost/discarded packets are resent
  • includes traffic congestion control
The newer Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is also a reliable, connection-oriented transport mechanism. It is Message-stream-oriented — not byte-stream-oriented like TCP — and provides multiple streams multiplexed over a single connection. It also provides multi-homing support, in which a connection end can be represented by multiple IP addresses (representing multiple physical interfaces), such that if one fails, the connection is not interrupted. It was developed initially for telephony applications (to transport SS7 over IP), but can also be used for other applications.
User Datagram Protocol is a connectionless datagram protocol. Like IP, it is a best effort, "unreliable" protocol. Reliability is addressed through error detection using a weak checksum algorithm. UDP is typically used for applications such as streaming media (audio, video, Voice over IP etc) where on-time arrival is more important than reliability, or for simple query/response applications like DNS lookups, where the overhead of setting up a reliable connection is disproportionately large. Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a datagram protocol that is designed for real-time data such as streaming audio and video.
TCP and UDP are used to carry an assortment of higher-level applications. The appropriate transport protocol is chosen based on the higher-layer protocol application. For example, the File Transfer Protocol expects a reliable connection, but the Network File System (NFS) assumes that the subordinate Remote Procedure Call protocol, not transport, will guarantee reliable transfer. Other applications, such as VoIP, can tolerate some loss of packets, but not the reordering or delay that could be caused by retransmission.
The applications at any given network address are distinguished by their TCP or UDP port. By convention certain well known ports are associated with specific applications. (See List of TCP and UDP port numbers.)

 Application Layer

The Application Layer refers to the higher-level protocols used by most applications for network communication. Examples of application layer protocols include the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)[9]. Data coded according to application layer protocols are then encapsulated into one or (occasionally) more transport layer protocols (such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP)), which in turn use lower layer protocols to effect actual data transfer.
Since the IP stack defines no layers between the application and transport layers, the application layer must include any protocols that act like the OSI's presentation and session layer protocols. This is usually done through libraries.
Application Layer protocols generally treat the transport layer (and lower) protocols as "black boxes" which provide a stable network connection across which to communicate, although the applications are usually aware of key qualities of the transport layer connection such as the end point IP addresses and port numbers. As noted above, layers are not necessarily clearly defined in the Internet protocol suite. Application layer protocols are most often associated with client–server applications, and the commoner servers have specific ports assigned to them by the IANA: HTTP has port 80; Telnet has port 23; etc. Clients, on the other hand, tend to use ephemeral ports, i.e. port numbers assigned at random from a range set aside for the purpose.
Transport and lower level layers are largely unconcerned with the specifics of application layer protocols. Routers and switches do not typically "look inside" the encapsulated traffic to see what kind of application protocol it represents, rather they just provide a conduit for it. However, some firewall and bandwidth throttling applications do try to determine what's inside, as with the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). It's also sometimes necessary for Network Address Translation (NAT) facilities to take account of the needs of particular application layer protocols. (NAT allows hosts on private networks to communicate with the outside world via a single visible IP address using port forwarding, and is an almost ubiquitous feature of modern domestic broadband routers).

Hardware and software implementation

Normally, application programmers are concerned only with interfaces in the Application Layer and often also in the Transport Layer, while the layers below are services provided by the TCP/IP stack in the operating system. Microcontroller firmware in the network adapter typically handles link issues, supported by driver software in the operational system. Non-programmable analog and digital electronics are normally in charge of the physical components in the Link Layer, typically using an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chipset for each network interface or other physical standard.
However, hardware or software implementation is not stated in the protocols or the layered reference model. High-performance routers are to a large extent based on fast non-programmable digital electronics, carrying out link level switching.

OSI and TCP/IP layering differences

The three top layers in the OSI model—the Application Layer, the Presentation Layer and the Session Layer—are not distinguished separately in the TCP/IP model where it is just the Application Layer. While some pure OSI protocol applications, such as X.400, also combined them, there is no requirement that a TCP/IP protocol stack needs to impose monolithic architecture above the Transport Layer. For example, the Network File System (NFS) application protocol runs over the eXternal Data Representation (XDR) presentation protocol, which, in turn, runs over a protocol with Session Layer functionality, Remote Procedure Call (RPC). RPC provides reliable record transmission, so it can run safely over the best-effort User Datagram Protocol (UDP) transport.
The Session Layer roughly corresponds to the Telnet virtual terminal functionality[citation needed], which is part of text based protocols such as the HTTP and SMTP TCP/IP model Application Layer protocols. It also corresponds to TCP and UDP port numbering, which is considered as part of the transport layer in the TCP/IP model. Some functions that would have been performed by an OSI presentation layer are realized at the Internet application layer using the MIME standard, which is used in application layer protocols such as HTTP and SMTP.
Since the IETF protocol development effort is not concerned with strict layering, some of its protocols may not appear to fit cleanly into the OSI model. These conflicts, however, are more frequent when one only looks at the original OSI model, ISO 7498, without looking at the annexes to this model (e.g., ISO 7498/4 Management Framework), or the ISO 8648 Internal Organization of the Network Layer (IONL). When the IONL and Management Framework documents are considered, the ICMP and IGMP are neatly defined as layer management protocols for the network layer. In like manner, the IONL provides a structure for "subnetwork dependent convergence facilities" such as ARP and RARP.
IETF protocols can be encapsulated recursively, as demonstrated by tunneling protocols such as Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE). While basic OSI documents do not consider tunneling, there is some concept of tunneling in yet another extension to the OSI architecture, specifically the transport layer gateways within the International Standardized Profile framework [10]. The associated OSI development effort, however, has been abandoned given the overwhelming adoption of TCP/IP protocols.

[edit] Layer names and number of layers in the literature

The following table shows the layer names and the number of layers of networking models presented in RFCs and textbooks in widespread use in today's university computer networking courses.
Kurose[11], Forouzan [12] Comer[13], Kozierok[14] Stallings[15] Tanenbaum[16] RFC 1122, Internet STD 3 (1989) Cisco Academy[17] Mike Padlipsky's 1982 "Arpanet Reference Model" (RFC 871)
Five layers Four+one layers Five layers Four layers Four layers Four layers Three layers
"Five-layer Internet model" or "TCP/IP protocol suite" "TCP/IP 5-layer reference model" "TCP/IP model" "TCP/IP reference model" "Internet model" "Internet model" "Arpanet reference model"
Application Application Application Application Application Application Application/Process
Transport Transport Host-to-host or transport Transport Transport Transport Host-to-host
Network Internet Internet Internet Internet Internetwork
Data link Data link (Network interface) Network access Host-to-network Link Network interface Network interface
Physical (Hardware) Physical
These textbooks are secondary sources that may contravene the intent of RFC 1122 and other IETF primary sources such as RFC 3439[18].
Different authors have interpreted the RFCs differently regarding the question whether the Link Layer (and the TCP/IP model) covers Physical Layer issues, or if a hardware layer is assumed below the Link Layer. Some authors have tried to use other names for the Link Layer, such as network interface layer, in view to avoid confusion with the Data Link Layer of the seven layer OSI model. Others have attempted to map the Internet Protocol model onto the OSI Model. The mapping often results in a model with five layers where the Link Layer is split into a Data Link Layer on top of a Physical Layer. In literature with a bottom-up approach to Internet communication[12][13][15], in which hardware issues are emphasized, those are often discussed in terms of physical layer and data link layer.
The Internet Layer is usually directly mapped into the OSI Model's Network Layer, a more general concept of network functionality. The Transport Layer of the TCP/IP model, sometimes also described as the host-to-host layer, is mapped to OSI Layer 4 (Transport Layer), sometimes also including aspects of OSI Layer 5 (Session Layer) functionality. OSI's Application Layer, Presentation Layer, and the remaining functionality of the Session Layer are collapsed into TCP/IP's Application Layer. The argument is that these OSI layers do usually not exist as separate processes and protocols in Internet applications.[citation needed]
However, the Internet protocol stack has never been altered by the Internet Engineering Task Force from the four layers defined in RFC 1122. The IETF makes no effort to follow the OSI model although RFCs sometimes refer to it and often use the old OSI layer numbers. The IETF has repeatedly stated[citation needed] that Internet protocol and architecture development is not intended to be OSI-compliant. RFC 3439, addressing Internet architecture, contains a section entitled: "Layering Considered Harmful".[1


A TOSLINK optical fiber cable with a clear jacket. These plastic-fiber cables are used mainly for digital audio connections between devices.
An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibers. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed.


A multi-fiber cable
In practical fibers, the cladding is usually coated with a tough resin buffer layer, which may be further surrounded by a jacket layer, usually plastic. These layers add strength to the fiber but do not contribute to its optical wave guide properties. Rigid fiber assemblies sometimes put light-absorbing ("dark") glass between the fibers, to prevent light that leaks out of one fiber from entering another. This reduces cross-talk between the fibers, or reduces flare in fiber bundle imaging applications.[1]

Left: LC/PC connectors
Right: SC/PC connectors
All four connectors have white caps covering the ferrules.
For indoor applications, the jacketed fiber is generally enclosed, with a bundle of flexible fibrous polymer strength members like Aramid (e.g. Twaron or Kevlar), in a lightweight plastic cover to form a simple cable. Each end of the cable may be terminated with a specialized optical fiber connector to allow it to be easily connected and disconnected from transmitting and receiving equipment.

An optical fiber breakout cable
For use in more strenuous environments, a much more robust cable construction is required. In loose-tube construction the fiber is laid helically into semi-rigid tubes, allowing the cable to stretch without stretching the fiber itself. This protects the fiber from tension during laying and due to temperature changes. Loose-tube fiber may be "dry block" or gel-filled. Dry block offers less protection to the fibers than gel-filled, but costs considerably less. Instead of a loose tube, the fiber may be embedded in a heavy polymer jacket, commonly called "tight buffer" construction. Tight buffer cables are offered for a variety of applications, but the two most common are "Breakout" and "Distribution". Breakout cables normally contain a ripcord, two non-conductive dielectric strengthening members (normally a glass rod epoxy), an aramid yarn, and 3 mm buffer tubing with an additional layer of Kevlar surrounding each fiber. The ripcord is a parallel cord of strong yarn that is situated under the jacket(s) of the cable for jacket removal.[2] Distribution cables have an overall Kevlar wrapping, a ripcord, and a 900 micrometer buffer coating surrounding each fiber. These fiber units are commonly bundled with additional steel strength members, again with a helical twist to allow for stretching.
A critical concern in outdoor cabling is to protect the fiber from contamination by water. This is accomplished by use of solid barriers such as copper tubes, and water-repellent jelly or water-absorbing powder surrounding the fiber.
Finally, the cable may be armored to protect it from environmental hazards, such as construction work or gnawing animals. Undersea cables are more heavily armored in their near-shore portions to protect them from boat anchors, fishing gear, and even sharks, which may be attracted to the electrical power signals that are carried to power amplifiers or repeaters in the cable.
Modern fiber cables can contain up to a thousand fibers in a single cable, so the performance of optical networks easily accommodates even today's demands for bandwidth on a point-to-point basis. However, unused point-to-point potential bandwidth does not translate to operating profits, and it is estimated that no more than 1% of the optical fiber buried in recent years is actually 'lit'.[citation needed] While unused fiber may not be carrying traffic, it still has value as dark backbone fiber. Companies can lease or sell the unused fiber to other providers who are looking for service in or through an area. Many companies are "overbuilding" their networks for the specific purpose of having a large network of dark fiber for sale. This is a great idea as many cities are difficult to deal with when applying for permits and trenching in new ducts is very costly.
Modern cables come in a wide variety of sheathings and armor, designed for applications such as direct burial in trenches, dual use as power lines,[3][not in citation given] installation in conduit, lashing to aerial telephone poles, submarine installation, or insertion in paved streets. In recent years the cost of small fiber-count pole-mounted cables has greatly decreased due to the high Japanese and South Korean demand for fiber to the home (FTTH) installations.

 Cable types

 Jacket material

The jacket material is application specific. The material determines the mechanical robustness, aging due to UV radiation, oil resistance, etc. Nowadays PVC is being replaced by halogen free alternatives, mainly driven by more stringent regulations.
Material Halogen-free UV Resistance Remark
LSFH Polymer Yes Good[4] Good for indoor use
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) No Good[5] Being replaced by LSFH Polymer
Polyethylene (PE) Yes Poor[6][7][8] Good for outdoor applications
Polyurethane (PUR) Yes ? Highly flexible cables
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) Yes Fair?[9] Good for indoor use
Polyamide (PA) Yes Good[10]-Poor[11] Indoor and outdoor use

 Color coding

[edit] Patch cords

The buffer or jacket on patchcords is often color-coded to indicate the type of fiber used. The strain relief "boot" that protects the fiber from bending at a connector is color-coded to indicate the type of connection. Connectors with a plastic shell (such as SC connectors) typically use a color-coded shell. Standard color codings for jackets and boots (or connector shells) are shown below:
Buffer/jacket color Meaning
Yellow single-mode optical fiber
Orange multi-mode optical fiber
Aqua 10 gig laser-optimized 50/125 micrometer multi-mode optical fiber
Grey outdated color code for multi-mode optical fiber
Blue Sometimes used to designate polarization-maintaining optical fiber
Connector Boot Meaning Comment
Blue Physical Contact (PC), 0° mostly used for single mode fibers; some manufacturers use this for polarization-maintaining optical fiber.
Green Angle Polished (APC), 8° not available for multimode fibers
Black Physical Contact (PC), 0°
Grey, Beige Physical Contact (PC), 0° multimode fiber connectors
White Physical Contact (PC), 0°
High optical power. Sometimes used to connect external pump lasers or Raman pumps.
Remark: It is also possible that a small part of a connector is additionally colour-coded, e.g. the leaver of an E-2000 connector or a frame of an adapter. This additional colour coding indicates the correct port for a patchcord, if many patchcords are installed at one point.

Multi-fiber cables

Individual fibers in a multi-fiber cable are often distinguished from one another by color-coded jackets or buffers on each fiber. The identification scheme used by Corning Cable Systems is based on EIA/TIA-598, "Optical Fiber Cable Color Coding." EIA/TIA-598 defines identification schemes for fibers, buffered fibers, fiber units, and groups of fiber units within outside plant and premises optical fiber cables. This standard allows for fiber units to be identified by means of a printed legend. This method can be used for identification of fiber ribbons and fiber subunits. The legend will contain a corresponding printed numerical position number and/or color for use in identification[12].
EIA598-A Fiber Color Chart[12]
Position Jacket color
1 Blue
2 Orange
3 Green
4 Brown
5 Slate
6 White
7 Red
8 Black
9 Yellow
10 Violet
11 Rose
12 Aqua
13 Blue with black tracer
14 Orange with black tracer
15 Green with black tracer
16 Brown with black tracer
17 Slate with black tracer
18 White with black tracer
19 Red with black tracer
20 Black with yellow tracer
21 Yellow with black tracer
22 Violet with black tracer
23 Rose with black tracer
24 Aqua with black tracer
Color coding of Premise Fiber Cable[12]
Fiber Type / Class Diameter (┬Ám) Jacket Color
Multimode 1a 50/125 Orange
Multimode 1a 62.5/125 Slate
Multimode 1a 85/125 Blue
Multimode 1a 100/140 Green
Singlemode IVa All Yellow
Singlemode IVb All Red

[edit] Losses

Typical modern Multimode Graded-Index fibers have 3 dB/km of attenuation loss at 850 nm and 1dB/km at 1300 nm. 9/125 Singlemode loses 0.4/0.25 dB/km at 1310/1550 nm. POF (plastic optical fiber) loses much more: 1 dB/m at 650 nm. Plastic Optical Fiber is large core (about 1mm) fiber suitable only for short, low speed networks such as within cars.[13]
Each connection made adds about 0.6 dB of average loss, and each joint (splice) adds about 0.1 dB.[14] Depending on the transmitter power and the sensitivity of the receiver, if the total loss is too large the link will not function reliably.
Invisible IR light is used in commercial glass fiber communications because it has lower attenuation in such materials than visible light. However, the glass fibers will transmit visible light somewhat, which is convenient for simple testing of the fibers without requiring expensive equipment. Splices can be inspected visually, and adjusted for minimal light leakage at the joint, which maximizes light transmission between the ends of the fibers being joined.
The charts at Understanding Wavelengths In Fiber Optics and Optical power loss (attenuation) in fiber illustrate the relationship of visible light to the IR frequencies used, and show the absorption water bands between 850, 1300 and 1550 nm.
Because the IR light used in communications can not be seen, there is potential hazard to technicians; in some cases the power levels are high enough to damage eyes, particularly when lenses or microscopes are used to inspect fibers which are inadvertently emitting invisible IR.